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Yud Tes Kislev, 5763

Kislev 19, 5763
Nov. 24, 2002

"Yud Tes Kislev"
- The 'Rosh HaShanah' of Chasidus

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Maimonides, Principles of the Faith, No. 12


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We are pleased to present, to the visually impaired and the blind, our weekly publication, Living With Moshiach.


It is with tremendous pain and sorrow that I dedicate this issue of Living With Moshiach to the loving memory of my dear cousin, Mrs. Raizel (Rosa) Rivkin, who passed away, on Sunday, 12 Kislev, 5763 (Nov. 17, 2002).


In this week's issue, we focus on:

1) The auspicious date of Yud Daled Kislev, the 14th day of Kislev. This year's Yud Daled Kislev marks the 74th wedding anniversary of the Rebbe and Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka.

2) The auspicious date of Yud Tes Kislev, the 19th day of Kislev. This year's Yud Tes Kislev marks the 204th anniversary of the Alter Rebbe's (Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi), release from incarceration in czarist Russia.


Our sincere appreciation to L'Chaim weekly publication, published by the Lubavitch Youth Organization, for allowing us to use their material.

Also, many thanks to our copy editor, Reb Mordechai Staiman, for his tireless efforts.


It is our fervent hope that our learning about Moshiach and the Redemption will hasten the coming of Moshiach, NOW!

Rabbi Yosef Y. Shagalov,
Committee for the Blind

9-10 Kislev, 5763
Brooklyn, New York

Mrs. Raizel (Rosa) bas Reb Tzvi Hirsh
Passed away on 12 Kislev, 5763
* * *
Dedicated by
her children, grandchildren and great grandchildren

Adapted from the Works of the Rebbe

Parshat Vayishlach

This week's Torah portion is Vayishlach. The 19th of the month of Kislev, which occurs Next Sunday, Nov. 24, is the date on which Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch, and the founder of Chabad Chasidus, was liberated from prison. Known among Chasidim as the Festival of Liberation, it always falls out in close proximity to the week when Vayishlach is read. As nothing happens by chance, we must conclude that the Festival of Liberation is alluded to in Vayishlach.

The main idea of the 19th of Kislev is spreading the wellsprings of Chasidus outward. These wellsprings, the innermost part of Torah, must not remain at their source, but must flow outward and inundate even the lowest parts of the earth. Furthermore, not only must the waters of Chasidus be carried everywhere, but the wellsprings themselves must be conveyed to every single Jew, no matter where he is.

The 19th of Kislev teaches us the necessity of bringing the life-giving waters of Torah, and particularly the inner part of Torah as expounded in Chasidus, to every Jew.

The name of this week's portion, Vayishlach, means "And he sent." A shliach, an emissary (from the same root as vayishlach), is a person who is dispatched in the sender's stead; moreover, "a person's emissary is just like him." In other words, when an emissary is sent to a certain place to carry out his mission, it is the same as if the sender himself has made the journey.

This concept of "spreading the wellsprings outward" is expressed in the word "vayishlach," the name of our Torah portion. The wellsprings must not stay at their source, but must be sent ever outward to reach as many people as possible.

The concept of Vayishlach exists in every age and in every generation. G-d "sends" the soul down from the celestial spheres to be enclothed within a corporeal body, to enable the person to serve G-d within the context of the physical world. This shlichus (mission) began with Adam and Chava (Eve), and is continued by their descendants.

The phenomenon of sending emissaries has existed throughout the generations. We find that many Torah giants sent shluchim to carry out various holy missions.

The concept of shlichus was further emphasized by the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Chasidus and his spiritual "descendants," especially Rabbi Shneur Zalman and his successors; they, in turn, entrusted every Jew with the holy mission of "spreading the wellsprings outward."

In fact, the Previous Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, declared that shlichus is the unique mitzvah of our generation. Every Jew must be a shliach to spread the wellsprings of Torah and Judaism wherever he or she goes. This is the unique role of our generation.


The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, issued a call that "The time of our Redemption has arrived!" and "Moshiach is on his way!"

The Rebbe stressed that he is saying this as a prophecy, and asks us all to prepare ourselves for the Redemption, through increasing acts of goodness and kindness.

Let us all heed the Rebbe's call.


Tuesday, the 14th of Kislev, (Dec. 19), is the 74th wedding anniversary of the Rebbe and Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka, the daughter of the Previous Rebbe. Thousands of people from all over Europe attended the wedding in Warsaw, Poland.(1)

The entire world, however, is now anticipating a "wedding" of another sort -- the "marriage" between the Jewish people and G-d, which will take place with the coming of Moshiach. Metaphorically speaking, the "engagement" took place when the Jews were redeemed from Egypt and received the Torah at Mount Sinai. When the Jews were exiled and G-d's manifest presence in the world departed, the "bride" was abandoned, as it were; ever since, she has pined away for her beloved. In the Messianic era, the "wedding" between the Holy One, Blessed Be He and His bride will be held, and the Jewish people will no longer be alone.

There is a verse in last week's Torah portion, Vayeitzei, which reads "And Leah conceived, and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben; for she said, Surely the L-rd has looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me." During the exile, the Jewish people are in a reduced spiritual state. Without the Holy Temple, G-d's love for His bride is not openly manifest.

Yet when G-d sees that the Jewish people remain strong in their faith, and continue to observe Torah and mitzvot even in their "affliction," it arouses His overwhelming and tremendous love for us. In the Messianic era, this love between husband and wife will reach its ultimate expression, and G-d's union with the Jewish people will be permanent and everlasting.

May we very soon merit to wish each other "Mazel Tov," at the most definitive wedding celebration in history.


1. See Living With Moshiach, Vol. 192


Legal holidays, bank holidays, American holidays. For most Americans, Presidents' Day and July Fourth, Memorial Day and Columbus Day conjure up images of long weekends, no mail, 24-hour banking machines and sales.

In Jewish tradition, a holiday, special event, or the birthday or yahrtzeit of a great person, has a different type of significance. Chasidic philosophy reveals that every special day in the Jewish calendar can have its own special impact on a person's life and the entire year.

From Passover, for instance, one receives the strength to break out of one's own Egypt, one's own limitations. From the upcoming holiday of Chanukah, we derive the ability to rededicate ourselves to G-dly service just as the Hasmonian Maccabees rededicated the Holy Temple after its defilement.

In the spiritual realm, the same forces in effect at the time of the original event reassert themselves at the time of the anniversary of the event. This makes an anniversary an opportune time to benefit from those forces.

Next Sunday, Nov. 24, is Yud Tes Kislev, the 19th day of the Hebrew month of Kislev, a day of import to chasidim the world-over. But, in keeping with the above comments, it has great significance for every Jew. It is the yahrtzeit of Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezritch, successor to the Baal Shem Tov. It is also the day of liberation for Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the Maggid's disciple and the first Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

Rabbi Shneur Zalman's arrest by the Russian government was instigated by opposers to the chasidic movement and its teachings. His liberation, then, meant freedom for the Chasidism.

"Every Jew is a brother, every individual Jew is important... A Jew is, by his very nature, inseparable from G-d, regardless of how much circumstances have temporarily overshadowed this connection." These were some of the basic teachings of the Baal Shem Tov expounded upon and disseminated by his chief disciple, the Maggid, and Rabbi Shneur Zalman.

The spiritual energy inherent in the 19th of Kislev gives each one of us the strength necessary to explore the Baal Shem Tov's teachings. From understanding and implementing the intrinsic unity of the Jewish people to the more esoteric and mysterious aspects of the Torah as explained in chasidic philosophy, this is an opportunity not to be missed.


Next Sunday, Nov. 24, is Yud Tes Kislev, the 19th day of the Hebrew month of Kislev. This date marks a special day in the Chabad-Lubavitch calendar in particular, and the Jewish calendar in general. It is the yahrtzeit of Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezritch, disciple and successor to the Baal Shem Tov.

The 19th of Kislev is also the day on which Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, and disciple of the Maggid, was released from his incarceration in czarist Russia. He was imprisoned on false charges of spreading anti-government sentiments.

On the simplest level, the event leading up to the Nineteenth of Kislev was the arrest of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, founder of Chabad Chasidism. His arrest was instigated by those who opposed the chasidic movement and fabricated lies against Rabbi Shneur Zalman. His arrest threatened his life and the survival of Chasidism.

The spiritual reality of the 19th of Kislev, however, was a charge, in the Heavenly court, against Rabbi Shneur Zalman, for expounding Chasidism and disclosing the mysteries of Torah.

Traditionally, the secrets of the Torah were studied only by a select few whose piety matched their scholarship. The Baal Shem Tov, founder of the chasidic movement, began disseminating the hidden aspects of Torah to even the simplest, unlettered Jews. His successor, the Maggid of Mezritch, continued in this vein. Both of these great leaders were faced with strong opposition to their "innovation."

Rabbi Shneur Zalman, a disciple of the Maggid, revealed the mysteries to an even greater extent than his predecessors, in order to reach every Jew. In Heaven, this brought about a tremendous accusation, which was reflected in the physical arrest and trial of Rabbi Shneur Zalman.

The liberation of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, then, indicates the spiritual approval of all the Rebbe's actions, on the physical and spiritual level.

We celebrate the Nineteenth of Kislev because it was the physical liberation of the Rebbe; his life was no longer endangered. But, more importantly, it is a day of celebration, for it shows Divine approval of Chasidism.


Why celebrate an event that took place 204 years ago to an individual in far-away Russia?

According to Jewish teachings, the same spiritual forces functioning at the time of the original event -- whether a birth, wedding, yahrtzeit, or victorious incident -- reassert themselves at the time of the anniversary. Therefore, it is an opportune time to benefit from those powers.

Rabbi Shneur Zalman was one of the chief proponents of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov. His vindication, therefore, was the vindication of the entire fledgling movement. Through his release from prison, the teachings of chasidic philosophy -- the inner and mystical aspect of Torah -- could be freely taught.

The spiritual forces operative on the original 19th of Kislev, and the 19th of Kislev in each subsequent year, are intimately tied up with the dissemination and study of Chasidus.

May we all use this special time, and the unique spiritual forces it brings with it, for the advancement of the study of chasidic teachings, especially as elucidated by Rabbi Shneur Zalman and his successors.


Happy New Year!

Wait a minute. It's a little late for Rosh HaShanah.

Actually, on the 19th of Kislev (this year, Next Sunday, Nov. 24), we do celebrate a "New Year," of sorts, the little-known Rosh HaShanah of Chasidus. On that day, 204 years ago, the first Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, who had been imprisoned on trumped-up charges, was released. To this day, chasidim greet each other with a "Happy New Year" and other appropriate salutations, on the 19th of Kislev.

But what, in fact, was so important about the first Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman -- and his release -- that we make such a big hubbub about it?

Rabbi Shneur Zalman was imprisoned because he was teaching and making available to all Jews Chasidus -- the inner mysteries of the Torah.

Today, what with modern technology, "sharing" and honesty in relationships, movies about ghosts and extraterrestrial beings, there don't seem to be many mysteries left to unravel. But, when it comes to Torah, and in particular to Jewish education, one big mystery still remains. It's the mystery of how Jewish children in free countries continue to grow up with little or no Jewish education.

It would seem that, in the spirit of Rabbi Shneur Zalman's life work, this "New Year" is the perfect time to be making resolutions about Jewish education. So, break out the bubbly, put on a hat, toot a few horns, and let's figure out how we can help that Jewish kid down the block learn something about being Jewish.


The question of decades ago, "It's ten p.m. Do you know where your children are?" might bring more looks of exasperation today than in the past. Yet, if someone directed a similar question to you -- "Do you know where you are?" we would think that the questioner is a bit daft.

Aside from visits to malls, zoos or amusement parks, when we often have to refer to the map at the information center to find out "you are here," we always seem to know where we are.

But do we really know where we are?

The first Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman, was imprisoned on trumped up charges of anti-government activities. During his imprisonment, one of the czar's officers -- having heard of Rabbi Shneur Zalman's keen intellect and outstanding genius in all areas of life -- engaged him in a conversation.

The officer had an unsolved question. "It says that Adam 'hid' after he sinned by eating fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. When G-d wanted to speak with Adam, He asked him, 'Where are you?' Didn't G-d know where Adam was?" asked the officer.

Rabbi Shneur Zalman replied, "The Bible is eternal and its message is for all times. G-d was inquiring of Adam, and of all his descendants for all time, 'Where are you? Where do you stand in the fulfillment of your life's mission? How much have you accomplished today and what do you intend to accomplish tomorrow that will help you fulfill the special task with which you have been entrusted?'"

The question "Where are you?" is asked every day of each one of us. Like the question, "Who are you?" the answer has to come from a place that goes beyond names and titles and positions and affiliations and job descriptions. To be able to properly respond, our answer has to come from our very essence. For G-d does not direct the question to Adam or Eve, to Michael or Jennifer. He directs it to you: "Where are you?"

An important start in being able to answer the question is to understand who "you" are. The chasidic teachings of Rabbi Shneur Zalman -- the dissemination of which was the true cause for his imprisonment -- explain that "you" are comprised of a G-dly soul and a body chosen by G-d at Mount Sinai. Torah, primarily as elucidated by chasidic teachings, can help us fully understand these two components of ourselves. Together with that understanding comes the ability to begin to answer the age-old and ageless question, "Where are you."

The New Year of Chasidus commences on the 19th of Kislev. Make a New Year's resolution that "you" will never regret. Join a Torah class that includes chasidic teachings. Find out where you really are.


Chasidus classes are available for people of all ages and backgrounds. For information, call your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.

For a listing of the Centers in your area: http://www.candlelightingtimes.org/general/shluchim.html.
In the USA, call: 1-800-Lubavitch (1-800-582-2848).

Adapted from Letters of the Rebbe

The Baal Shem Tov writes in a letter to his brother-in-law that on Rosh HaShanah of the year 5507/1746, his soul ascended to the heavenly realms where he was granted the privilege of entering the palace of the soul of Moshiach. He asked Moshiach, "Master, when are you coming?" Moshiach responded, "When your wellsprings [teachings] will be disseminated outward." (2)

To this end, the Rebbe has always stressed the importance of studying chasidic philosophy and teaching it to others to hasten Moshiach's coming and to prepare ourselves for the messianic era.

What follows are excerpts of letters from the Rebbe about the importance of disseminating Chasidus.


The destiny of the teachings and the message of the Baal Shem Tov -- that they should be disseminated to the furthest reaches of the world -- must be fulfilled. Accordingly, no corner of the globe inhabited by Jews should remain untouched by this message.

And since we are now in the era in which we hear the approaching footsteps of Moshiach, who "is standing behind our wall," waiting only for the finishing touches to our refinement of this physical world, it is thus imperative that Chasidus be studied in Australia, too. This applies not only to the Russian-born chasidim who were sent there as emissaries; it should likewise permeate the local Jewish population. And since this is something that must happen, all the necessary resources will no doubt be forthcoming.

* * *

I was pleased to read of your decision to engage in the diffusion of the light of Chasidus, and so on. It is a pity, though, that you are deferring this for some time, when "behold, [Moshiach] is standing behind our wall," and is being delayed only because the wellsprings are not yet sufficiently widespread. Can anyone measure [the Jewish people's] anguish with every additional moment of exile, or [their] bliss in every additional moment of the Era of the Redemption?

* * *

It is my obligation (and my privilege) to make you aware of the great necessity of studying the inner dimensions of the Torah, which in these latter generations have been revealed within the teachings of Chasidus. And if this study is a necessity for every Jew, how much more is this true of a person who is in a position to influence others, and who is thus (in the words of the Mishnah) "himself meritorious and causes many others to attain merit." Moreover, from this affirmative statement one can infer [that the reverse is true when one does not take steps to be meritorious].

Especially in this period of the approaching footsteps of Moshiach, when "behold, he is standing behind our wall" and everyone should be prepared every day for his coming, every single individual must do his duty. For, as the King Moshiach himself stated, he will come "when the wellsprings will be widespread." Heaven forfend that the exile be prolonged, even for the shortest time, by reason of any inactivity in this task of dissemination, or even by incomplete activity. For this is an exile both of G-d and of the House of Israel, since "when they were exiled to Edom the Divine Presence accompanied them."

* * *

From the perspective of this world, today's world needs a more intense light and a greater diffusion of light, because of its lower standards (as the Sages write, "If the early generation were like angels, we are like mortals; if they were like mortals, we are like donkeys"), and because of the seriously depleted numbers of our Jewish brethren (as a result of the events of recent years).

From the heavenly perspective, year by year, in every era, a new and lofty spiritual light that has never yet radiated is drawn down to this world each year from a higher realm. This obliges us to provide additional "vessels" for this light. In this era in particular, we are coming ever closer to the time of which we have been promised, "In its time I will expedite it." This verse refers to the time of the coming and revelation of Moshiach. The "vessel" for this revelation is the light of Chasidus; the condition for this revelation is the dissemination of the wellsprings of Chasidus. It follows that this light must radiate even to places that until now were "outside" and that everywhere, vessels to contain the light of Moshiach should be expanded.


Chasidus classes are available for people of all ages and backgrounds. For information, call your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.


2. See CHASSIDUS IN BRAILLE: Lighting Up the Path to the Redemption

Adapted from the Works of the Rebbe

In order to understand the concept of "spreading the wellsprings [of Torah] outward," we need to examine the physical properties of a well.

A well's water gushes spontaneously from its source without waiting for the thirsty person to come and drink. Likewise, its waters flow far and wide, saturating everything with which they come in contact.

In a similar vein, when the objective is bringing the waters of Torah to other Jews, we cannot wait until they come and ask to drink its knowledge. The Torah, the sustenance of life itself, must be brought to wherever Jews are found.

This approach originated with Aaron the High Priest, who "loved peace and pursued peace, loved his fellow creatures and brought them nearer to Torah." Aaron did not wait until others took the first step, but went "outside" to draw them closer to Judaism.

Significantly, Aaron "brought them nearer to Torah," and not the other way around. The Torah's principles were never altered or compromised to fit a given situation. Rather, each individual Jew was brought to the Torah, the same true and eternal Torah that has stood immutable for thousands of years.

This characteristic service of Aaron is alluded to in the Torah portion of Beha'alotcha -- literally, "When you light the lamps." As High Priest, Aaron's job entailed kindling the menorah in the Sanctuary.

A candle is symbolic of the Jewish soul, as it states, "the candle of G-d is the soul of man." Aaron's function was to light the candle, i.e., ignite the soul of every Jew, for every Jew possesses a G-dly soul, no matter how concealed it may be. By lighting this "candle," Aaron revealed the flame that burns inside each and every one of us.

Furthermore, Aaron made sure that the candle would continue to burn without his assistance. It is not enough to uncover the G-dly soul that exists in the recesses of every Jewish heart; the soul must be so aroused that it continues to burn with love of G-d and perpetually seeks to reunite with its Source Above.

Thus, "spreading the wellsprings outward" requires that we go "outside," beyond our own "space" to awaken the hidden spark of G-d that is the birthright of every Jew. For no matter how hidden it may seem to be, all that is necessary is that we find it and fan its flame until, like a candle after the match which lit it has been removed, it continues to burn by itself.


A chasid once approached the third Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, known as the Tzemach Tzedek, with a question. "What is the point of studying Chasidus, which deals with abstractions that no mortal mind can fully grasp? After all, when Moshiach comes even those who didn't study Chasidus will know G-d, as it says in Isaiah, 'For they will all know Me.'"

The Tzemach Tzedek replied: "A person listening to a conversation on the other side of a wall doesn't grasp everything. He only understands the general drift. But later, when the conversation is repeated in full, he understands everything he had heard previously. Every few moments he thinks, 'Ah! Now I understand all those connections and details!'

"Here, too," continued the Tzemach Tzedek, "it is true that someone who studies Chasidus grasps only part of the subject. But when Moshiach will teach it in the time to come, that person will be able to look back and say, 'Ah...!'

"And not only that, but someone hearing those teachings for the second time will understand them much more deeply than someone who will then hear them for the first time. As the above-quoted verse says, 'For they will all know Me, from their smallest to their greatest' -- and it is obvious that the understanding of a young child cannot be compared to that of an adult."

Does this sound like Greek to you? If so, consider the following. Imagine you decide to become a printer. Even before you set foot in a printing shop you start finding out all kinds of fascinating facts about printing and presses. You become an expert in paper and ink. You avidly read a book that describes in detail how a four-color press works, complete with diagrams.

The big day comes when you're going to actually see a printing press. You invite a friend to come. The friend doesn't know even a fraction of what you do about printing, but he's a good friend so he comes.

You get into the printing plant and walk over to the biggest four-color press in the building. After only a moment of surveying it, you point to something. "Ah," you say excitedly, "this is where the ink goes!" An instant later you notice a row of buttons. "Ah," you say with animation, "this is the button you push to start the press." You walk around the machine pointing to levers, buttons, and thing-a-ma-jigs that you recognize from your "four-color-press-manual." And each time, you exclaim, "Ah" -- as if to say, "I learned about it when it was all theoretical, but now I really understand."

What about your friend, though? He's probably bored since he doesn't really know heads from tails in the printing business.

According to Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of Chabad Chasidus, the G-dly Light we will experience in the messianic era is a result of the quality of our performance of mitzvot and study of Torah before Moshiach's revelation.

So, a similar type of scene to the one described above in the printing shop will repeat itself when Moshiach comes. During this long exile, we study our manual -- the revealed and hidden aspects of Torah. We learn that every time we do a mitzvah it strengthens our connection with G-d, but we don't quite understand why. We read that G-d created this world -- and other worlds -- but don't really understand how. We hear about the Holy Temple and wonder how it will look.

When Moshiach comes, and everything is revealed for our physical eyes to behold, we'll say, "Ah, now I see how my connection to G-d was strengthened through performing mitzvot. Ah, now I see how G-d created the world, and I even see the spiritual worlds that exist on non-physical planes that Kabbalah talks about. Ah, I recognize all these different furnishings of the Holy Temple that I learned so much about." The "Ah" will be directly proportional to the amount of effort and study we do now, in these last few moments before Moshiach!


The Rebbe's slogan is: "The main thing is the deed." We therefore present from the Rebbe's talks suggestions what we can do to complete his work of bringing the Redemption.

Make Yud Tes Kislev Gatherings:

"Gatherings should be held in every Jewish community, in honor of 19 Kislev -- the "New Year of Chasidus" and anniversary of the liberation of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe.

"Participate in as many gatherings as you can. They needn't be huge assemblies; begin with yourself (i.e., a gathering of one's own strengths and powers for good).

"At these gatherings an emphasis should be placed on inspiring each other to increase in Torah, prayer and deeds of kindness."

(The Rebbe, 16 Kislev, 5752/1991)


For a Yud Tes Kislev gathering in your area, contact your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.


Jewish Women and Girls Light Shabbat Candles

For local candle lighting times:
consult your local Rabbi, Chabad-Lubavitch Center, or call: (718) 774-3000.
or: http://www.candlelightingtimes.org/shabbos

For a free candle lighting kit:
contact your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.

For a listing of the Centers in your area:
In the USA, call: 1-800-Lubavitch (1-800-582-2848).

Times shown are for Metro NY - NJ

Friday, Nov. 22, Erev Shabbat Parshat Vayishlach:

  • Light Shabbat Candles,(3) by 4:16 p.m.

Saturday, Nov. 23, Shabbat Parshat Vayishlach:

  • Shabbat ends at nightfall, at 5:19 p.m.


3. The Shabbat candles must be lit 18 minutes before sunset. It is prohibited and is a desecration of the Shabbat to light the candles after sunset.

Laws of Shabbat Candle Lighting for the Blind

Shabbat Candle Lighting Blessing

"Let There Be Light" - The Jewish Women's Guide to Lighting Shabbat Candles.

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